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San Miniato al Monte
viale Galileo Galilei

History
Florence's oldest surviving church after the Baptistery, San Miniato was built from 1028 to 1063 by Bishop Hildebrand on the site of a chapel protecting the tomb of the saint which had been here since at least the 8th century. Minias was a deacon of an early Christian community from the East. He was martyred around 250 and this is the site to which he is said to have carried his decapitated head following his execution down in the Piazza della Signoria. The Benedictine Cluniac monastery was given to the Olivetan Bendictines by Gregory XI in 1373. The complex was used as a barracks and fortress by Grand Duke Cosimo I, due to its commanding position, then in 1630 as a plague hospital, and later as a poorhouse. In 1703 Cosimo III gave the monastery to the Jesuits, who remained here officially until Clement XIV suppressed them in 1774. But they remained secretly, protected by Florentine aristocratic supporters.  The Olivetans returned in 1784, until the Napoleonic suppressions of 1808. In 1924 they came back again and remain here, also looking after the church.

The church
The sectional fašade was begun around 1090, made with white and green marble in geometric patterns, arguably inspired by Arabic examples. The flattened-arcading effect at ground level is suggestive of a narthex, maybe. The 13th century mosaic panel depicts Christ Between the Virgin and San Miniato and was remade in 1861. High up in the tympanum are square panels which repeat designs from the floor inside. The eagle with outstretched wings clutching a bale of cloth on the very top is the symbol of the cloth importers guild (the Arte di Calamila) who had been responsible for the church's upkeep since 1288.

Interior
San Miniato is special, in the same way that the Miracoli church in Venice is special, only it's that much bigger, and has frescos. The nave is separated from the aisles by  marble columns with various capitals - each side consisting of three pairs separated by a pair of compound piers with half shafts supporting the stout diaphragm arches over the nave.  The columns towards the east end are visibly too big for their capitals, these being spolia, recycled from much earlier Roman temples in Florence. Towards the west the fit, so are probably contemporary. The floor and upper part of the nave is all clad in marble, with a timber ceiling of 1322 that's colourfully decorated. The floor is from 1207 and of opus sectile, looking like a made-of-marble carpet, and the upper level decoration, which is painted in imitation of marble, dates from the 19th century, when the roof and polychromatic ceiling was restored. There is a raised choir over a crypt, with a tabernacle in front of it.
The tabernacle, the Capella del Crocefisso, was built to house the miraculous Crucifix which was said to have bowed to San Giovanni Gualberto - this Crucifix is now in Santa Trýnita, since 1671, and its story is here. The tabernacle was built for Piero il Gottoso in 1448 around the same time as he was having the larger and more ornate tabernacle built to house the similarly miraculous image at SS Annunziata. Pagno di Lapo Portigiani and Michelozzo were involved in both projects, with Luca della Robbia working on this one. The controlling Calimala guild (the guild of cloth finishers and merchants) were resistant to Piero adding his family and personal arms to the decoration of the tabernacle. But they gave in. Michelozzo's gilded bronze eagle of the Calimala guild, clutching a bale of cloth, dominates the front face, but you'll also find Piero's falcon, his symbol of a diamond ring encircling three feathers and the Medici family palle. The painted panels at the back, which protect the crucifix, are the work of Agnolo Gaddi (1394-96) and show scenes from the lives of SS Miniato and Giovanni Gualberto, the Annunciation, and the Passion of Christ. They were originally arranged in a cruciform shape to protect the crucifix. The enamelled terracotta roof and ceiling are by Luca della Robbia.
The left hand aisle wall begins with two detached frescoes by Mariotto di Nardo (a Madonna and Child with Saints and a Crucifixion with Seven Saints) and a damaged but admirable and anonymous Crucifix (see right). Here is also the Chapel of the Cardinal of Portugal, begun in 1460 by Antonio Manetti, a pupil and biographer of Brunelleschi. Cardinal James of Lusitania, the nephew of King Alfonso V of Portugal, died in Florence in 1459 at the age of 25, amongst his last words being a request he be buried in San Minato. His aunt, the Duchess Isabella of Burgundy, and his humanist friends sponsored the tomb, the only one in the church apart from the saint's The tomb itself is by Antonio Rossellino and is his masterpiece. The chapel has five ceiling medallions by Luca della Robbia, the back wall is frescoed by Antonio and Piero Pollaiuolo, with angels pulling aside a curtain. The much-damaged Annunciation on the wall above the marble bishop's throne and the Evangelists and Fathers of the Church in the lunettes and spandrels are by Alessandro Baldovinetti. The paintings in here are hard to see though, due to dinginess, and the altarpiece is a copy, the original (1466-68), by the Pollaiuolo brothers being in the Uffizi. Its Netherlandish plushness is said to be down to its commissioning Portuguese clients having been heavily involved in the Burgundian court. It was even painted on Netherlandish oak panels rather than the usual Italian poplar, using oil.
Up the steps to the choir here gives you a good view of the oldest frescoes here - an Annunciate Virgin and a Nativity fragment from the late 13th century. As you cross you can admire the lovely marble work on the screen and pulpit, by Giovanni and Francesco di Domenico in 1466, and the apse (see right) (there's a light at the top of the right-hand steps) containing the 13th century dome mosaic depicting Christ Between the Virgin and San Miniato and a della Robbia Crucifix.
In the right hand corner up here is the entrance to The Sacristy, with fittings and frescos commissioned by Benedetto Alberti. Frescoed by Spinello Aretino with large evangelists in the vault and episodes from the life of Saint Benedict on the walls, so lots of scenes full of chaps in white robes (see below right) . Very much still influenced by Giotto, but his scenes are not as well unified.
There are some early (13th century) frescoes of saints on the choir wall by the entrance to the sacristy. Returning down the other stairs into the right-hand aisle, here are, nearer the door, a Madonna Enthroned with Six Saints, by Paolo Schiavo from 1436, and a large Saint Christopher of the 14th century.
The crypt (see below right) is 11th century, groin-vaulted and has its original altar containing the saint's remains, on the site where Bishop Hildebrand had found them centuries before. The vaults above it are frescoed with saints and prophets, on a blue starry-night background, by Taddeo Gaddi. These are works of his maturity (c.1338/-41) - later than the Baroncelli Chapel in Santa Croce - but they are the little that remains of his work here.

Campanile
Unfinished. Built by Baccio d'Agnolo around 1520 as the existing tower had collapsed in 1499. During the siege of 1529, during which it was used as an artillery post, Michelangelo saved it by covering it in woollen mattresses to protect it from enemy cannon balls.

Lost art
Three by Agnolo Gaddi painted in the 1380s/90s, towards the end of his career. A Crucifixion, part of the predella of a polyptych, perhaps the one that he painted for here. It's been in the Uffizi since 1860. Secondly an altarpiece of The Virgin and Child with Saints painted for the sacristy here, now in the National Gallery in Washington. Lastly a lovely Coronation of the Virgin in the National Gallery, the original location for which is in doubt, but here looks the most likely place.

Odd fact
San Miniato is one of only three churches mentioned by Dante, the other two being the Baptistery and the Badia.

Opening times
Winter 7.00 - 1.00 & 3.30 - 7.00
Summer 7.00 - sunset
Sundays 8.00 - 7.00
(Between 7-8am only the side door is open.)
 




                                                              

 







 

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