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San Lorenzo


History
The site of two earlier churches from the 4th and 11th Centuries. The first church, built
outside the old Roman city walls, was consecrated by Saint Ambrose  during Easter in 394, and is reputed to be the earliest church  in Florence. Tradition has it that a Jewish widow by the name of Giuliana (who became Saint Giuliana) offered to finance this original church were she to bear a son, who she would then call Lorenzo, after the Roman martyr after whom the church was also to be named. St Zenobius is said to have been present at this consecration and to have been buried in the church when he died in 429. Serving for several centuries as Florence's cathedral the church was rebuilt from 1045 in Romanesque style (see drawing from Codex Rustici of 1425, right) being reconsecrated on 20th January 1060 by Pope Nicholas II, who had been Bishop of Florence. This church was destroyed by fire in the early 15th Century.
The current church was built by Brunelleschi between 1418 and 1469, with financial help from eight parishioners, including Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici, who initially commissioned Brunelleschi to build the sacristy chapel, but to whom the entire church was then entrusted in 1421. Brunelleschi's commitment to his work on the Duomo, along with a period of financial and political unrest, halted work in 1425, until in 1442 Cosimo de' Medici lent the Commune 40,000 florins, the interest on which was to pay for the construction of the nave. In return the Medici were allowed to put their arms here and in the crossing, the church thus became so Medici-financed as to become virtually Medici-owned, their mausoleum, with some minor chapels in the nave and transept granted by them to other families.  The degree of Brunelleschi's involvement is much argued over, with Cosimo de' Medici's favoured architect Michelozzo often suggested as responsible for the work after 1442. When he died in 1446 responsibility passed to his pupil, and biographer, Antonio di Manetto Ciaccheri, whose work has been much criticised, most notably by Vasari.
Between 1515 and 1517 Giuliano da Sangallo, Jacopo Sansovino, Baccio d'Agnolo and Michelangelo all submitted designs for the fašade. The idea was to recreate in marble the more ephemeral grandeur of the decorations erected for the Medici Pope Leo X's
triumphant entry into Florence in November 1515. Michelangelo's was commissioned, but never constructed, although his designs for the inner fašade, library and the new sacristy (now known as the Medici Chapel) were. He wasted three years on the fašade project - he made almost thirty trips, to the marble quarries and elsewhere, and masses of marble was bought for a project of a hugeness not seen since the building of the Duomo cupola - before the Pope cancelled the project.
The church was restored, with the campanile added, by Ferdinando Ruggieri in 1740.

Interior
The characteristic Brunelleschi calm inside is even more striking after the hustle of the piazza outside - one truly needs the pietra to be as serena as it can. Romanesque in style but gothic in it loftiness - the arches rest not on the capitals but on blocks placed on each capital, called pulvins. Circular windows above the side chapels and tall windows at clerestory level fill the interior with light. The white coffered ceiling is not over-gilt, but the painted dome (the Apotheosis of the Saints of Florence) by Vincenzo Meucci, dating to 1742, just after the Ruggieri restoration, does rather spoil the austere effect with it's fluffy rococo exuberance. It is also the final pice of Medici patronage, commissioned by Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici, who died in 1743, and the Grand Duchy of Tuscany then passed to Francis III of Lorraine. So this is not the least spoiled of Brunelleschi's interiors, but Michelangelo's inner fašade blends pretty well, especially his reliquary balcony of 1530, and other later embellishments, in the 15th and 19th Centuries, don't do too much damage.
Another highlight is the cool cube of Brunelleschi's sacristy - it's an early work of his and so was actually finished while he was alive, with it's tomb of the first rich Medici (who financed the work) and later decoration by Donatello. It has a pleasing umbrella dome and Donatello panels depicting the four evangelists with desks for their attribute creatures to sit on. His rather relentless frieze of cherubs is less pleasing. Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici and his wife, the parents of Cosimo il Vecchio, have their sarcophagus under the marble vesting table in the centre. Verrocchio's monument to Piero and Giovanni de'Medici, Cosimo's sons, set into the wall here, dates from 1472.
Donatello's Passion pulpit was recently restored and had a scaffolding viewing platform allowing you to walk around three of the crowded panels and admire them up close. The other one (the Pulpit of the Resurrection) was then restored and both have now (April 2017) been finished. They were his last works.
In front of the altar steps is the tomb slab of Cosimo il Vecchio, buried in the crypt below. It was Verrocchio's first documented commission, from 1465.

Art highlights
There are six shallow chapels in each aisle, and the altarpieces are mostly late 16th Century and unimpressive. There's a 1523 painting by Rosso Fiorentino of the Betrothal of the Virgin in the second chapel on the right (the Ginori chapel) in which Joseph is a uniquely curly-haired, beardless and youthful, not the safely infertile ex-widower that he's usually portrayed as. The fourth chapel on the right has an Assumption by Michele di Ridolfo del Ghirlandaio (aka Michele Tosini) which is really not very good. A document from 1434 suggests that, as in Brunelleschi's Santo Spirito, the size and shape of the chapels and their altarpieces was strictly controlled - the stipulation forbidding ornate carpentry having lead, it is said, to the single-space scenes, mostly sacra conversazioni with a tendency to squareness, that we find here.
It's not a church that's big on frescoes, but Bronzino's squirmy fresco of the Martyrdom of Saint Lawrence from the late 1560s is, well, very big. Very few of the mass of figures are clothed, but amongst the few that are you'll find a self-portrait of Bronzino, with his teacher Pontormo and colleague Allori. This was almost his last work, there was to be a matching one opposite but he died before he could start it.
Behind the Saint Lawrence in the chapel in the left transept (the Martelli chapel) is Filippo Lippo's Annunciation, which is one of his best early works and something of a breath of fresh air (see far right). It's darker tones and (especially) the bravura representation of the water-filled glass flask in the cunningly-created niche in the  foreground show the influence of Netherlandish art and techniques. Donatello's gilded but tasteful tomb, erected in 1896, is here too.
The chapel next to the sacristy contains a likeable St Anthony Abbot with Saints Lawrence and Julian by the studio of Domenico Ghirlandaio. And I like the tomb in here too (detail right).

The cloister and crypt
Entry to the left of the church, beyond the ticket office. The canon's cloister was designed by Manetti (1457-62) (see right) and gives access to the crypt and treasury. Donatello is buried in the crypt, as is his friend Cosimo il Vecchio, under their respective monuments in the church above. The treasury is a room full of reliquaries in glass cases.

Campanile
By Ferdinando Ruggieri in 1740-41, commissioned by the last of the Medici, Electress Palatine Anna Maria Lodovica.

Lost art
Frescos by Bronzino and Pontormo painted in the choir just before the latter's death were
criticised by Vasari and later destroyed during 18th Century renovations. The left wall depicted the Deluge, the right wall the Resurrection, with the Martyrdom of Saint Lawrence on the back wall. It seems that the painted Saint Lawrence would have appeared to have been resting on the altar, within which a relic of the saint was interred.

The church in art
One of painter and etcher Robert Charles Goff's many scenes of Florence and Tuscany is a rather impressive and unusual view of San Lorenzo (see right). He was a follower of Whistler, an Irish Army colonel who travelled much and retired to Brighton, where the Brighton Museum staged a major exhibition of his work in
2011/12.

The church on film and TV
A spectacular road chase in the 1954 film Cronache di Poveri Amanti based on a novel by Vasco Pratolini (translated into English as A Tale of Poor Lovers) ends with fatality and a flaming motorcycle in front of the fašade of San Lorenzo.

An episode in the second (2014) season of the TV series Da Vinci's Demons had a scene where Leonardo and Verrochio are sitting on the CGI roof of San Lorenzo (see below)




Opening times

Daily 10.00 - 5.00

Sunday 1.30 to 5.30 March to October (closed Sundays rest of the year)

Medici chapels
Daily 8.15-1.50
closed 1st, 3rd and 5th Mondays and 2nd and 4th Sundays in each month

 



 



 

 

 

 

 

 

 














How San Lorenzo would look with Michelangelo's
fašade, created by studioDIM, More here.

 


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